It assembles a team of programmers who conducted a project from start to finish. Team members do product definition, design the product, implement it, test it, conduct project reviews, and prepare the supporting documents. Some project team members may stay with a product during installation and maintenance, and some team members may go on to new projects while retaining responsibility for maintenance of the delivery product. Project team members typically work on a project for 1 to 3 years and are assigned to a new project on completion of the current one.
In this, a different team of programmers performs each phase of the project, and work share between teams as they evolve. Thus, a planning and analysis system develops the system definition of the project plan and processes these documents to your product definition team, who performs software requirements analysis and prepare the software requirement specification.
The requirement specification is passed to a design team, who designs that product to confirm with the system definition and requirement specification. And implementation team implements, debugs, and unit tests the product, and the passes its system testing team. The quality Assurance team clarifies the quality of all work products.
A separate maintenance team maintains the product during its useful life. A variation on the functional format involves 3 teams: an analysis team, a design and implementation team, and a testing and maintenance team. The functional format requires more communication among teams then they project format, but also allows personnel to become specialists in particular roles and result in more attention through proper documentation because of the increased need for clear communication.
Each of the functions described above has its management team and a group of specialist personnel who are concerned only with that function. The Matrix format is depicted below.
Each development project has a product manager concerned only with that project. The project manager is organizationally a member of the Planning function or the development function. The project manager generates and reviews documents and may participate in the design, implementation, and testing of the product. In the matrix organizations, everyone has at least two bosses, and the need to resolve the ambiguity.
The programming team must have an internal structure. The best team structure for a particular project depends on the nature of the project and the product, and the characteristics of the individual team members. Basic team structures include a democratic team, in which all team members participate in all decisions. The chief programmer team, in which a chief programmer is assisted and supported by other team members.
A large project may utilize several program teams. Regardless of the tubes are used, each Team should be limited to no more than five to seven team members. The limit controls the number of communication paths within the team and permits effective coordination of each team member's work activities.
Characteristics of the various team structures are as follows:
The idealized democratic team was first described by Weinberg as the "egoless team". In an egoless team, goals are set and decisions are made by group consent. Group leadership rotates between members based on the performance and abilities of the team members. The team leader position does not usually rotate among team members in a democratic team because it teams conditions best when one individual is responsible for coordinating team activities and for making final decisions in situations where consent cannot be reached.
Chief programmer teams
In contrast to democratic teams, chief programmer teams are highly structured. The chief programmer designs the product implements critical parts of the product and makes all major technical decisions. Work is allocated to the individual programmers by the chief programmer. The programmers, who number between two and five, write code and debug, document, and unit test it.
Hierarchical manager subordinate structure
Each reports to a manager and is responsible for performing the tasks delegated by the manager. This is suitable for large projects with a strict schedule where everybody is well trained and has a well-defined role.
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